What Are the Different Methods of Biological Treatment of Sewage?

Wastewater treatment is crucial, which needs to be done by the various process to eliminate all kinds of water impurities from the water. Water being the natural solvent, can dissolve almost all substances in it. Due to this, property water becomes the home of various kinds of potential contamination, which may lead to waterborne diseases.

The waterborne disease can be fatal if not treated properly. Every year waterborne diseases lead to millions of death all around the world. In India, this ratio is around 1 lakh. According to the data, one person gets affected by waterborne diseases each for minutes. Thus one should avoid drinking contaminated water.

With the increasing water pollution getting safe and healthy water becomes difficult. But thanks to the technology which makes wastewater treatment possible. Here we are going to discuss one of the most used wastewater treatment from called biological wastewater treatment. Biological water purification uses a natural process to decompose organic waste.

It is estimated that each year more than 3 million people lose their lives globally due to the drinking of contaminated water. Thus the drinking water quality is one of the major concerned. There are several methods are used to purify water both on the low level as well as high level.

These methods are physical, chemical, and biological. In physical wastewater treatment process, water contamination are removed from the water by using physical method like screening and in chemical water purification process, removal of water contamination takes place by chemicals like Chlorine whereas in the biological wastewater treatment process removal of contamination occurs by the use of biological or natural substances.

Biological waste water treatment process looks simple, but in reality, it isn’t straightforward. The biological treatment is mainly based on microbes like’s bacteria, nematodes, and other small organism to break down organic waste. A natural treatment primarily of two types:

Aerobic biological wastewater treatment Process

In the aerobic water purification process, organic waste is converted into biogas, which contains a high concentration of methane and carbon dioxide (CO2). Aerobic biological treatment is an energy-efficient process; thus, it is mostly used in various industries to eliminate contamination present in water. Aerobic wastewater treatment generally occurs in the presence of oxygen. This process includes:

  • Activates sludge treatment
  • Oxidation ditches
  • Trickling filters
  • Lagoon based treatments
  • Aerobic digestion

Anaerobic biological wastewater treatment Process

This process is time-consuming and takes place in an oxygen-free environment. It also converts organic waste into biomass. Anaerobic wastewater treatment process generally takes three months to complete, and it may lead to some unpleasant smell. One of the best known anaerobic processes is anaerobic digestion.

Anaerobic digestion is used to treat food and beverage industries company contamination along with the municipal, chemical, and agricultural waste.

Benefits Of Biological Wastewater Treatment Process

This process is used globally because it is the most effective and economical than chemical and physical wastewater treatment system. Generally, biological treatment is considered as secondary wastewater treatment process. Thus this process is used to eliminates all those impurities which remain in the water after the physical wastewater treatment process. In the primary process, sediments or other substances like oils are removed from the water.


The use of biological or natural processes to remove the contamination present in water is called an organic process. Biological wastewater treatment is considered as secondary wastewater treatment process, which is responsible for the removal of contamination remains after the primary treatment. This process is widely used, as it is the most effective and economical than the chemical and physical wastewater treatment process. In the biological treatment process, organic waste is converted into biomass containing a high concentration of methane and carbon dioxide in the presence and absence of oxygen. The aerobic and anaerobic process is used to perform the biological process.

Presence of biological contamination in water can be more hazardous as biological contamination can be various kinds of microbes, radioactive waste, waste of pharmaceutical company, and many others. Biological wastewater treatment process is one the best methods to eliminates water contamination.

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